See Amnon Ben-Tor, “Excavating Hazor—Part One: Solomon’s City Rises from the Ashes,” BAR 25:02; and Amnon Ben-Tor and Maria Teresa Rubiato, “Excavating Hazor—Part Two: Did the Israelites Destroy the Canaanite City?” BAR 25:03. The Selz Foundation Hazor Excavations in Memory of Yigael Yadin are sponsored by the Israel Exploration Society and the Excavations in the standing stones area (Area A4) were supervised by Elizabeth Crowford and the author.


About 40 standing stones were found by Yigael Yadin’s expedition at various loci from the Late Bronze Age. I do not consider these in this article.



Yohanan Aharoni, “The Israelite Sanctuary at Arad,” in David N. Freedman and J.C. Greenfield, eds., New Directions in Biblical Archaeology (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1971), pp. 28–44.


Gordon Loud, Megiddo II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948).


E. Eisenberg, “The Temples at Tel Kitan,” Biblical Archaeologist, 40, pp. 77–81.


For a thorough discussion on these interpretations see the much-quoted article by Carl F. Graesser, “Standing Stones in Ancient Palestine,” Biblical Archaeologist, 35 (1972).


At Byblos in Lebanon, more than 40 standing stones were set up around a small, raised, round, early-second-millennium B.C.E. chamber/cella that the excavators suggest housed the emblem of some deity (M. Dunand, Byblos II [1950], p. 644). This, too, suggests that the cella (and more specifically the deity housed within it), and not the standing stones surrounding it (no matter how nicely these were shaped), served as the focal point of this sacred area that the latter meant to face and lends support to my interpretation of the standing stones at Hazor.


Graesser, p. 56