1. Eric H. Cline, “1177 B.C.—The Collapse of Bronze Age Civilization,BAR, Summer 2022.

2. Avraham Faust, “How Did Israel Become a People?BAR, November/December 2009; Anson Rainey, “Inside, Outside: Where Did the Israelites Come From?,BAR, November/December 2008; Adam Zertal, “Israel Enters Canaan—Following the Pottery Trail,BAR, September/October 1991; Israel Finkelstein, “Searching for Israelite Origins,” BAR, September/October 1988.


1. Portions of this essay are adapted from my book, After 1177 B.C.: The Survival of Civilizations (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2024), and are used here by permission.