1. R. Steven Notley and Mordechai Aviam, “Searching for Bethsaida: The Case for El-Araj,” BAR, Spring 2020.

2. See James F. Strange and Hershel Shanks, “Has the House Where Jesus Stayed in Capernaum Been Found?” BAR, November/December 1982.

3. Vassilios Tzaferis, “A Pilgrimage to the Site of the Swine Miracle,” BAR, March/April 1989.


1. For further discussion, see R. Steven Notley, “Byzantine Bethsaida and the House of St. Peter,” Novum Testamentum 64 (2022), pp. 532–551.

2. Virgilio Corbo, The House of St. Peter at Capharnaum: A Preliminary Report of the First Two Campaigns of Excavations, Sylvester Saller, trans. (Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1972); Stanislao Loffreda, Recovering Capharnaum (Jerusalem: Custodia Terra Santa, 1985).

3. See Herbert Bloch, “Peter the Deacon of Monte Cassino,” in Berard L. Marthaler et al., eds., New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 11, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Gale, 2003), p. 206.

4. A study of the inscription is being prepared by Leah di Segni and Jacob Ashkenazi.

5. See, for example, John Chrysostom, De paenitentia 3.4; Basil of Seleucia, Homilia in feriam v et in proditionem Judeae 5.5; Maximus the Confessor, Quaestiones ad Thalassium 61.272.