Yohanan Aharoni, The Archaeology of the Land of Israel (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982), p. 169. Ze’ev Herzog, Beer-sheba II: The Early Iron Age Settlements (Tel Aviv, 1984), pp. 82–84. Ze’ev Meshel, “Horvat Ritma—An Iron Age Fortress in the Negev Highlands,” Tel Aviv 4 (1977), pp. 132–133. David Eitam, “The Negev Highlands Fortresses—Settlement Sites?” Teva Va’aretz 21 (1979), pp. 124–130 (in Hebrew).


See, for details, Israel Finkelstein, “The Iron Age Fortresses of the Negev Highlands—Sedentarization of Desert Nomads,” Tel Aviv 11 (1984), pp. 189–209. The first scholar who expressed the view that the Negev sites were not Israelite fortresses was Beno Rothenberg, Archaeology in the Negev and the Arabah (Ramat Gan, 1967), pp. 88–92 (in Hebrew).


Cf. Rudolph Cohen and William G. Dever, “Preliminary Report of the Second Season of the ‘Central Negev Highlands Project,’” BASOR 236 (1979), pp. 41–60.


Cf. the Nabatean road from Petra to Gaza: Ze’ev Meshel and Yoram Tsafrir, “The Nabatean Road from ‘Avdat to Sha‘ar Ramon,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 106 (1975), pp. 103–118; 107 (1976), pp. 3–21; and for the network of Egyptian fortresses from the period of the New Kingdom in northern Sinai: Eliezer D. Oren, “L’epoque des pharaons,” Le Monde de la Bible 23 (1982), pp. 8–13.


The name Ein Qedeis is misleading, since the site is located about three kilometers from the spring.


Meshel, “A History of the Roads in the Negev,” in The Land of the Negev (Part 1), eds., Avshalom Shmueli and Yehudah Grados (Tel Aviv: Ministry of Defence Publishing, 1979), pp. 297–307 (in Hebrew).


Cohen, “The Iron Age Fortresses in the Central Negev,” BASOR 236 (1979), pp. 61–79.


Eitam, “The Negev Highlands,” p. 125.


Cohen, “The Israelite Fortresses in the Negev Highlands,” Qadmoniot 12 (1975), p. 50 (in Hebrew).


Cohen, “The Iron Age Fortresses,” pp. 77–78.


Eitam, “The Negev Highlands,” p. 127.


Benjamin Sass, “Sinai Between the Fourth and First Millennia B.C.,” in Sinai in Antiquity, eds., Meshel and Israel Finkelstein (Tel Aviv: Hakkibutz Hameuchad, 1980), pp. 41–54 (in Hebrew).


Eric Mills, Census of Palestine 1931 (Alexandria: Palestine Census Office, 1931), pp. 328–335; H. V. Musham, Bedouin of the Negev (Jerusalem: Academic Press, 1966), pp. 10–24, 31; Emmaunel Marx, Bedouin of the Negev (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1967), p. 11; David H. K. Amiran et al., “Spontaneous Settlement of Bedouin in the Northern Negev,” in The Land of the Negev (Part II), p. 654.


Avshalom Shmueli, Nomadism About to Cease (Tel Aviv, 1980), pp. 18, 76, 100–101, 137–139 (in Hebrew). Philip C. Saliman, “Introduction: Processes of Sedentarization as Adaption and Response,” in When Nomads Settle (New York, 1980), pp. 1–19.


Aharon Kempinski, “Tel Masos,” Expedition 20 (4), pp. 29–37; “Israelite Conquest or Settlement? New Light from Tel Masos,” BAR 02:03.


Moshe Kochavi, “Rescue in the Biblical Negev,” BAR 06:01.


Cf. photographs in Alois Musil, Arabia Petraea III (Vienna, 1908), p. 131, Gustaf Hermann Dalman, Arabat und Sitte in Palastina VI (Gutersloh, 1939), p. 12, and description by Claude R. Conder, Tent Works in Palestine (London, 1889), p. 275.


Shmueli, Nomadism About to Cease, pp. 83, 107, 154–155; Motoko Katakura, Bedouin Village (Tokyo, 1977), p. 73; Shirley Kay, The Bedouin (New York, 1978), p. 143.


In fact, we might attribute the sedentarization of the desert inhabitants to the prosperity of the Beer-Sheva basin and the flourishing commerce in the south under the United Monarchy, followed by economic decline and abandonment of the sites in the wake of Pharaoh Shishak’s invasion of Eretz Israel. But then we would expect stratum II at Tel Masos to exist also in the tenth century B.C. Moreover, if we assign the prosperity of the Negev highlands to the southern trade of the United Monarchy, it is difficult to explain why this prosperity did not return later, during the climax of the Kingdom of Judah’s activity in the south, or under Assyrian rule. This would indicate that the sedentarization phenomenon existed only when the desert people themselves controlled the Arabian trade and not when a monopoly was held by northern political entities.