See Hershel Shanks, “The Siloam Pool: Where Jesus Cured the Blind Man,BAR 31:05.



Y. Tepper, “The Rise and Fall of Dove-Raising,” in A. Kasher, A. Oppenheimer and U. Rappaport, eds., Man and Land in Eretz-Israel in Antiquity (Jerusalem, 1986), pp. 170–196 (Hebrew), p. 176, n. 28.


The number and technological sophistication of underground dovecotes reached their peak in this area, particularly at Maresha and its surroundings (see A. Kloner, “Maresha,” Qadmoniot 95–96 [1991], pp. 72–73 [Hebrew]; A. Kloner, Maresha Excavations Final Report I, Subterranean Complexes 21, 44, 70 [IAA Reports 17] [Jerusalem, 2003]. For bibliography see Boaz Zissu, “The Dovecote at Ḥorvat ‘Eleq,” in Yizhar Hirschfeld, Ramat Hanadiv Excavations: Final Report of 1984–1998 Seasons (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2000), pp. 617–626.


One is round, and the other is square. Weill’s structure (designated as Tower H), which is discussed in this article, was not identified as such in 1920 (R. Weill, La Cité de David (Planches) (Paris, 1920), pls. III, VII, VIIb) but was identified as a dovecote by Donald T. Ariel following the discovery of a similar and better-preserved structure in nearby Area D2. This tower was dated to the late Hellenistic period (prior to the first century B.C.E., according to Alon de Groot [personal communication]). My thanks to Donald T. Ariel and Alon de Groot for kindly supplying this information.


J.M.C. Toynbee, Animals in Roman Life and Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 1973), p. 258.


Varro, Rerum Rusticarum III:VII.


Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia X, 53.


Mishnah, Baba Batra 5.3 and Tosefta, Berakhot 4.14.


Baba Batra 4.7–9.


Baba Batra 2.5.


M. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World, vol. 1 (Oxford, 1941), p. 294; Michael Schnebel, Die Landwirtschaft im Hellenistischen Ägipten (Munich: Beck, 1925), pp. 84–87.


M. Cobianchi, 1936. “Richerche di ornitologia nei papiri dell ‘Egitto greco-romano,” Aegyptus 14 (1936), pp. 91–121; G. Husson, Le Vocabulaire de la Maison Privée en Egypte d’Après les Papyrus Grecs (Paris, 1983), pp. 224–226.


A.E.R. Boak and E.E. Peterson, Karanis—Topographical and Architectural Report of Excavations (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1931), pp. 24, 48, 49, 54.


C.H Ericson, “The Great Nilotic Mosaic in Palaestrina,” Boreas, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis (1984), pp. 55–56; P.G.P. Meyboom, The Nile Mosaic of Palestrina (Leiden: Brill, 1995), pp. 40, 280.


J. Hornell, “Egyptian and Medieval Pigeon-houses,” Antiquity XXI (1947), pp. 184–185; P. Siguret, “Colombiers de Normandie,” Archeologia 38 (1971), pp. 74–77; M. Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire Raisonné de l’architecture Française du XI au XVI Siècle, vol. III (Paris, 1868), pp. 482–491.


E. Beazley, “The Pigeon Towers of Isfahan,” Iran 4 (1966), pp. 105–109.