See the following articles in Biblical Archaeology Review: Hershel Shanks, “The Missing Millennium in Jerusalem’s Archaeology,” BAR 26:05; “David’s Jerusalem: Fiction or Reality,” BAR 24:04; and Shanks, “Where Is the Tenth Century?” BAR 24:02.



See Mordechai Cogan, 1 Kings, Anchor Bible series (New York: Doubleday, 2000), p. 315.


An important milestone in historical scholarship on the United Monarchy is Albrecht Alt’s classic essay, “The Formation of the Israelite State in Palestine,” in Alt, Essays on Old Testament History and Religion (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967; German original, 1930). The current controversy convinces me that this essay is still the finest treatment of the subject.