Aaron Brody and Anna Marguerite McCann, “Exploring the Deep,BAR, January/February 2003.


See the review by William G. Dever “Back Breakers from Ashkelon and Hazor,BAR 39:02


Ehud Weiss and Mordechai E. Kislev, “Weeds & Seeds: What Archaeobotany Can Teach Us,BAR 30:06.



On mining see K.A. Yener, “The Archaeometry of Silver in Anatolia: The Bolkardağ Mining District,” American Journal of Archaeology (1986), pp. 469–472; on the old Assyrian Caravan Trade, see the summary by K.R. Veenhof, “Kanesh an Assyrian Colony in Anatolia,” in J.M. Sasson, ed., Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (New York: Scribner, 1995), pp. 859–871.


See R.D. Ballard and Lawrence E. Stager et al., “Iron Age Shipwrecks in Deep Water Off Ashkelon, Israel,” American Journal of Archaeology (2002), pp. 151–168 and Lawrence E. Stager, “Phoenician Shipwrecks and the Ship Tyre (Ezekiel 27),” in J. Pollini, ed., Terra Marique: Studies in Art History and Marine Archaeology in Honor of Anna Marguerite McCann (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2005), pp. 238–254.


Several potential locales for ancient markets have been identified in the ancient Near East. See Larry Herr, “Tripartite Pillared Buildings and the Market Place in Iron Age Palestine,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1988), pp. 47–67 and Avraham Biran, “The hûṣôt of Dan,” Eretz-Israel 26 (1999), pp. 25–29 (in Hebrew). The oldest proposed market is at Mari; see J.C. Margueron, Mari, métropole de l’Euphrate au IIIe et au début du IIe millénaire avant JC (Paris: Picard, 2004), pp. 160–162 (in French). But Mari and the other proposed markets lack the in situ artifacts that show trade in action. Ashkelon’s market is the sole space in which the architecture, goods for sale and receipts of sale are all found together; it is the only archaeologically demonstrated market in the ancient Near East.


See L.E. Stager, D.M. Master and J.D. Schloen, Ashkelon 3: The Seventh Century B.C. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011) with reviews by E. Stern, Israel Exploration Journal 62 (2012), pp. 248–250 and C.M. Thompson, American Journal of Archaeology 117 (2013).


See also J.S. Holladay, “Hezekiah’s Tribute, Long-distance Trade, and the Wealth of Nations ca. 1000–600 B.C.: A New Perspective,” in S. Gitin, J.E. Wright and J.P. Dessel, eds., Confronting the Past: Archaeological and Historical Essays on Ancient Israel in Honor of William G. Dever (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006), pp. 302–332 and Daniel M. Master, “Trade in I and II Kings,” in A. Lemaire and B. Halpern, eds., The Books of Kings, Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 129 (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 501–516.


Valerie Fargo, “Settlement in Southern Palestine During Early Bronze III” (Ph.D. thesis, University of Chicago, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 1979), pp. 90–92, 238–241; and Lawrence E. Stager, “Port Power in the Early and the Middle Bronze Age: The Organization of Maritime Trade and Hinterland Production,” in S.R. Wolff, ed., Studies in the Archaeology of Israel and Neighboring Lands in Memory of Douglas L. Esse, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations 59 (Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2001), pp. 625–638.


See translation in Dennis Pardee, “The Meṣad Ḥashavyahu (Yavneh Yam) Ostracon,” in W. Hallo and K.L. Younger, eds., The Context of Scripture, Vol. 3, Archival Documents from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 2003), p. 77.


See Israel Finkelstein et al., “Phoenician ‘Torpedo’ Amphoras and Egypt: Standardization of Volume Based on Linear Dimensions,” Egypt and the Levant 21 (2011), pp. 261–280.