Orthostats are large, well-dressed stones that line the lower part of the walls of temples or public buildings. Orthostats carved in the shape of a lion are sometimes placed on either side of the entrance to such buildings, where they serve as guardians.


See “Ivory Treasure,” BAR 20:01


A cartouche is an oval containing the hieroglyphic name and titles of an Egyptian king.



Although today most scholars agree that the truth about the Israelite settlement probably lies somewhere between the Joshua and Judges accounts, in the 1950s and 1960s these conflicting accounts divided scholars—some of whom (led by Yigael Yadin and Abraham Malamat) accepted the conquest story found in Joshua, while others (led by Albrecht Alt and Yohanan Aharoni) leaned toward the model of peaceful infiltration found in Judges. For a summary of these and other approaches, see Adam Zertal, “Israel Enters Canaan—Following the Pottery Trail,” BAR 17:05; and “Israel’s Emergence in Canaan: BR Interviews Norman Gottwald,” Bible Review, October 1989; and Yigael Yadin, “Is the Biblical Account of the Israelite Conquest of Canaan Historically Reliable?” BAR 08:02.


Yadin, Hazor: The Rediscovery of a Great Citadel of the Bible (New York: Random House, 1975), p. 13.


Yadin, Hazor, The Schweich Lecture Series of the British Academy 1970 (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972), p. 108; and Hazor: The Rediscovery, pp. 249–255.


Yadin, Hazor: The Rediscovery, p. 16.


Yadin, Hazor: The Rediscovery, p. 18–19.


Yadin, Hazor III–IV (Text) (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/Hebrew Univ., 1989), pp. 6–10; Hazor III–IV (Plates) (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/Hebrew Univ., 1961), plates 5–7; and Hazor, p. 124.


Yadin, Hazor, p. 104; and Hazor: The Rediscovery, p. 262; Sir Leonard Woolley, Alalakh: An Account of the Excavations at Tell Atchana in the Hatay, 1937–49 (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1955), p. 65.


Seymour Gitin, “Scoops: Corpus, Function and Typology,” in Michael Heltzer, Alan Segal and David Kaufman, eds., Studies in the Archaeology and History of Ancient Israel (Haifa: Haifa Univ. Press, 1993), pp. 99–126.


That not only stone but wood was often reused in later buildings is a phenomenon with which archaeologists are familiar: One famous example is the wooden beams of the Byzantine period that were used in the ceiling of buildings of the Islamic period in Jerusalem.


Yadin, in Symposia: Celebrating the Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Founding of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1900–1975), ed. Frank Moore Cross (Cambridge, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1979), p. 66.