Shlomo Bunimovitz and Avraham Faust, “Ideology in Stone: Understanding the Four-Room House,” BAR 28:04.



See U. Hölscher, The Excavations of Medinet Habu II, Oriental Institute Publications 41 (Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1939), pp. 68–72, esp. 71 and fig. 59. See also Manfred Bietak, “An Iron Age Four-Room House in Ramesside Egypt,” Eretz Israel 23 (1991), pp. 10–12, and “Der Aufenhalt ‘Israels’ in Ägypten und der Zeitpunkt der ‘Landnahme’ aus heutiger archäologischer Sicht,” Egypt and the Levant 10 (2000), pp. 179–186.


Manfred Bietak, “Thebes-West (Luqsor): Vorbericht über die ersten vier Grabungskampagnen (1969–1971),” Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-historischen Klasse der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 278, Band 4 (Vienna, 1972), pp. 17–26.


H. Ricke, Der Grundriss des Amarna Wohnhauses (Leipzig, 1932); A. Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture: The Empire (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1968), pp. 11–35, 55; E. Roik, “Das altägyptische Wohnhaus und seine Darstellung im Flachbild,” Europ. Hochschulschriften, Reihe XVIII, Band 15 (Frankfurt-Bern, 1988). The contributions in the following provide a panorama of the present state of house research in Ancient Egypt: “House and Palace in Ancient Egypt,” International Symposium 8th to 11th April 1992 in Cairo, ed. M. Bietak, in Untersuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts 14. Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 14 (Vienna, 1995), pp. 23–43.


Recent summary of literature: John S. Holladay, Jr., “The Four-Room House,” in Eric M. Meyers, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East vol. 2 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997), pp. 337–342. Further reading: Yigal Shiloh, “The Four-Room House: Its Situation and Function in the Israelite City,” Israel Exploration Journal (IEJ) 20 (1970), pp. 180–190, and “The Four-Room House—The Israelite Type-House?” Eretz-Israel 11 (1973), pp. 277–285 (in Hebrew); Volkmar Fritz, “Bestimmung und Herkunft des Pfeilerhauses in Israel,” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereins (ZDPV) 93 (1977), pp. 30–45; F. Braemer, L’architecture domestique du Levant à l’age du fer (Paris, 1982), pp. 102–105; George Ernest Wright, Ancient Building in South Syria and Palestine (Leiden-Köln, 1985), pp. 134–136, 225–229, 294–298 and Figure 31, 194.


Shiloh, “Four-Room House,” IEJ 20 (1970), p. 180.


Personal information.


Volkmar Fritz, ZDPV 92 (1976), pl. 2, loc. no 110b and 124 and ZDPV 96 (1980), pp. 121–135; Fritz and Kempinski, “Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen auf der Chirbet Msas (Tel Masos), Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina Vereins, vols. I-III (Wiesbaden, 1983).


The plan of the second four-room house, of which only about a third is plotted, does not appear to contain this anomaly. The entry is not through the north.


Raphael Giveon, Les Bedouin Shosou des documents égyptiens (Leiden, 1971).


James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969), p. 262.


As illustrated in Papyrus Anastasi V.19, 3–20-6 from the time of the end of the XIXth Dynasty (c. 1200 B.C.E.)


W. Erichsen, Papyrus Harris I, Hieroglyphische Transkription. Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca V, Brussels 1933, 93 (p. 76, 9–10).


Israel Finkelstein, The Archaeology of the Israelite Settlement (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society 1988 [Hebrew, Tel Aviv, 1986]).


On this, see Abraham Malamat, “Israelite Conduct of War in the Conquest of Canaan,” in Symposia Celebrating the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of the Founding of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1900–1975), ed. Frank M. Cross (Cambridge, MA, 1979), pp. 35–56; B.S.J. Isserlin, “The Israelites’ Conquest of Canaan: A Comparative Review of the Arguments Applicable,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 115 (1983), pp. 85–94; Volkmar Fritz, “Conquest or Settlement? The Early Iron Age in Palestine,” Biblical Archaeologist 50 (1987), pp. 94f.


M. Bietak, “Zur Landnahme Palästinas durch die Seevölker und zum Ende der ägyptischen Provinz Kanaan,” in Festschrift Werner Kaiser, MDAIK 47 (1991), pp. 35–50; “The Sea Peoples and the End of the Egyptian Administration in Canaan,” in A. Biran and J. Aviram, eds., Biblical Archaeology Today II, Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, June-July, 1990 (Jerusalem, 1993), pp. 299–306; Trude Dothan, “The Arrival of the Sea Peoples: Cultural Diversity in Early Iron Age Canaan,” in Recent Excavations in Israel: Studies in Iron Age Archaeology, ASOR 49 (1989), pp. 1–14; T. Dothan & M. Dothan, People of the Sea: The Search for the Philistines (New York, 1992); I. Singer, “The Beginning of Philistine Settlement in Canaan and the North Boundary of Philistia,” Tel Aviv 12 (1985), pp. 109–122; I. Singer, “Egyptians, Canaanites, and Philistines in the Period of the Emergence of Israel,” in From Nomadism to Monarchy, eds. I. Finkelstein and N. Na’aman (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 232–238; Lawrence E. Stager, “The Impact of the Sea Peoples in Canaan (1185–1050 B.C.E.),” in T.E. Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land (New York: Facts on File, 1995), pp. 332–348.


H. Engel, “Die Siegesstele des Merneptah,” Biblica 60 (1979), pp. 373–394; M.C. Astour, “Yahweh in Egyptian Topographical Lists,” in Elmar Edel Festschrift (Bamberg 1979), pp. 17–34.


D.P. Henige, The Chronology of Oral Tradition (Oxford, 1974); J. Vansina, Oral Tradition as History (London, 1985); O. Murray, “Herodotus and Oral History,” in H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg and A. Kuhrt, eds., Achaemenid History II: The Greek Sources (Leiden, 1987), pp. 93–115; D.D. Fehling, Herodotus and His Sources (Leeds, 1989); W. Burkert, “Lydia Between East and West or How to Date the Trojan War: A Study in Herodotus,” in J.B. Carter and S.P. Morris, eds., The Ages of Homer, A Tribute to E.T. Vermeule (Austin, 1995), pp. 139–148.


D.P. Henige, The Chronology of Oral Tradition (Oxford: Clarendon Press), pp. 121–144.


On the emergence of written culture with the state, see for example, T.N.D. Mettinger, “Solomonic State Officials. A Study of the Civil Government Officials in the Israelite Monarchy,” Coniectanea Biblica, OTS, vol. V (Lund, 1971); Volkmar Fritz, “Die Entstehung Israels im 12. und 11. Jh. V. Chr.,” Biblical Encyclopaedia vol. 2 (Stuttgart, 1996), pp. 202f.


Frank M. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (Cambridge, MA, 1980); J.C. De Moor, “The Rise of Jahwism. The Roots of Israelite Monotheism II” Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum Lovaniensium (Louvain, 1990); D.A. Robertson, Linguistic Evidence in Dating Early Hebrew Poetry (Missoula, MT, 1972).