B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era), used by this author, are the alternate designations corresponding to B.C. and A.D. often used in scholarly literature.


The Hasmonean dynasty of Jewish rulers, founded by Mattathias and his son Judah the Maccabee, reigned from the 160s to 63 B.C.E., when the Romans entered Jerusalem.


The Samaritan calendar is a lunisolar calendar with 354 days. It is divided into 12 months of 29 or 30 days each. The months do not have names, but are designated by ordinal numbers (for instance, the first month, the second month, etc.). In order for the primarily agrarian feasts to be celebrated in the same season each year, an intercalation system is used (in other words, at certain times an additional month is added). The Jewish and Samaritan methods of intercalation differ from each other, so the dates for celebrating Passover do not always coincide.



The excavator, Yitzhak Magen, will publish his findings in a monograph. For the time being, see his articles “A Fortified Town of the Hellenistic Period on Mount Gerizim,” Qadmoniot 75–76 (1986), pp. 91–101 (in Hebrew) and “Mount Gerizim—A Temple City,” Qadmoniot 91–92 (1990), pp. 70–96 (in Hebrew).


Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 11.302–347, 13.255–256; The Jewish War 1.63.


This platform, according to the excavator, was built by the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (138–161 C.E.) to elevate the temple of Zeus erected by him. In the past, it was supposed that the temple of Zeus had been built by Hadrian (117–138); but this claim is based on medieval Samaritan chronicles and is not borne out by the archaeological finds. For more details, see Magen’s articles cited above and Reinhard Pummer, Samaritans, Iconography of Religions, 23.5 Leiden: Brill, 1987), pp. 9, 33–35, and “Samaritan Material Remains and Archaeology,” in The Samaritans, ed. Alan D. Crown (Tübingen, Germ.: J.C.B. Mohr, 1989), pp. 157–169.


On the church, see Pummer, Samaritans, pp. 4, 9, 33, and Magen, “The Church of Mary Theotokos on Mount Gerizim,” in Christian Archaeology in the Holy Land, New Discoveries: Essays in Honour of Virgilio C. Corbo, ed. G.C. Bottini, L. Di Segni and E. Alliata, Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio Maior, 36 (Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1990), pp. 333–342.


See now Leah Di Segni, “The Church of Mary Theotokos on Mount Gerizim: The Inscriptions,” in Bottini et al. Christian Archaeology in the Holy Land, pp. 343–350.


See Encyclopaedia Judaica Decennial Yearbook (Jerusalem: Keter, 1982), p. 543.


See Pummer, “Nablus und Tel Aviv—Tradition und Moderne,” in Geisteshaltung und Umwelt: Festschirft zum 65. Geburtstag von Manfred Büttner, ed. W. Kreisel, Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Geowissenschaften und Religion/Umwelt-Forschung, 1 (Aachen: Alano-Verlag, 1988), pp. 405–414.


For examples, see Pummer, Samaritans, p. 25.