1. Strata: “Caligula Reveals His True Colors,BAR, 37:06.

2. Louis H. Feldman, “Financing the Colosseum,BAR, 27:04.

3. Estelle Reed, “A Second Triumphal Arch of Titus Discovered,” Bible History Daily (blog), originally published on June 11, 2015.

4. Steven Fine, “The Temple Menorah—Where Is It?BAR 31:04.

5. Noah Wiener, “Yeshiva University Project Shines a Colorful Digital Light on the Arch of Titus,” Bible History Daily (blog), originally published on June 22, 2012.



This experience is discussed in Steven Fine, The Menorah: From the Bible to Modern Israel (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2016), pp.1–16. On the colorization project described in this article, see Steven Fine, Peter J. Schertz and Donald H. Sanders, “The Arch of Titus in Color: A Tentative Reconstruction of the Polychromy of the Menorah Panel,” forthcoming. See also Steven Fine, “Menorahs in Color: Polychromy in Jewish Visual Culture of Roman Antiquity,” Images: A Journal of Jewish Art and Visual Culture 6.1 (2012), pp. 3–25; Heinrich Piening, “Examination Report: The Polychromy of the Arch of Titus Menorah Relief,” Images: A Journal of Jewish Art and Visual Culture 6.1 (2012), pp. 26–29. Our research is the subject of Fine’s free Coursera course, The Arch of Titus: Rome and the Menorah ( Our work was made possible by generous funding provided by Yeshiva University and by the support of George Blumenthal of New York, David and Jemima Jeselsohn of Zurich and the International Catacomb Society. We especially thank the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma, Cinzia Conti, and our colleagues Bernard Frischer of Indiana University, Paolo Liverani of the University of Florence, Heinrich Piening of the State of Bavaria and John Pollini of the University of Southern California.


See, e.g., Vinzenz Brinkmann, Raimund Wünsche, eds., Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity: Exhibition at the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University Art Museums, in Cooperation with Staatliche Antikensammlungen and Glyptothek Munich, Stiftung Archaëologie Munich, September 22, 2007–January 20, 2008 (Munich: Stiftung Archaëologie Glyptothek, 2007) and the associated gallery guide (

3. Preliminary versions of the papers delivered at Caligula 3-D: Man, Myth, Emperor, a symposium organized by the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts on December 4, 2011, may be found at See Peter Schertz and Bernard Frischer, eds., Man, Myth, and Emperor (Leiden and Boston: Brill, forthcoming).

4. The base of this menorah is discussed in Fine, The Menorah, pp. 2–36.

5. Josephus, Jewish War 7.148–153, citing the translation of Henry St. John Thackeray, Josephus: The Jewish War, Loeb Classical Library, vol. 3 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1928), p. 549.

6. Steven Fine, “Who Is Carrying the Temple Menorah? Jewish Counter-Memory and the Arch of Titus Spolia Panel,” Images: A Journal of Jewish Art and Visual Culture 9 (2016); Fine, The Menorah, pp. 1–162.

7. Orietta Rossini, Ara Pacis (Milan: Electa, 2007), pp. 134–141.

8. Josephus, Antiquities 3.291–292. Josephus reminds his readers that this sort of horn is “called an asosra in the Hebrew tongue,” derived from the Hebrew ḥatsrotsra of Numbers 10:1.

9. Stephan Zink with Heinrich Piening, “Haec Aurea Templa: The Palatine Temple of Apollo and Its Polychromy,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 22 (2009), pp. 109–122.

10. Jewish War 7.148. On this interpretation of the Bar-Kokhba coins, see Dan Barag, “The Showbread Table and the Facade of the Temple on Coins of the Bar-Kokhba Revolt,” in Hillel Geva, ed., Ancient Jerusalem Revealed (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 272–276; Fine, The Menorah, p. 44; Steven Fine, Peter J. Schertz and Donald H. Sanders, “The Table of Showbread on the Arch of Titus: A Reconstruction and Its Implications,” forthcoming.

11. Josephus, Antiquities 3.108; Etienne Nodet, “Table delphique au Temple,” Revue Biblique 96.4 (1989), pp. 533–544; for the fresco, Irene Bragatini and Valeria Sampaolo, eds., Pittura Pompeiana (Milan: Electa, 2010), pp. 229–230.