B.C.E. is the scholarly, religiously neutral designation corresponding to B.C. It stands for “Before the Common Era.”


See Donald Redford, “The Monotheism of the Heretic Pharaoh,” BAR 13:03. See also, Redford, Akhenaten: The Heretic King (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984).



Such varying skin color would explain the melanin traces found in the skin of mummies, cited by Cheikh Anta Diop in “Origin of the Ancient Egyptians,” in Ancient Civilizations of Africa, vol. 2 of General History of Africa, ed. Gamal Mokhtar (Paris: UNESCO, 1981), p. 35.


For recent genetic and dental studies and illustrations of mummies, see James E. Harris and Kent R. Weeks, X-Raying the Pharaohs (New York: Scribner’s, 1973), pp. 119–168, esp. p. 123, on the Nubian features of the late XVIIth Dynasty rulers, and pp. 141–142 for the mummies of Yuya and Thuya. See also Harris and Edward F. Wente, eds., An X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1980), esp. pp. 134–135 for the family of Yuya and Thuya and their daughter Queen Tiy and p. 346 for the identity of Cairo Museum mummy no. 61070 as Queen Tiy.

For additional information on the identification of mummy no. 61070 as Queen Tiy, see Harris et al, “Mummy of the ‘Elder Lady’ in the Tomb of Amenhotep II: Egyptian Museum Catalog Number 61070,” Science 200 (June 9, 1978), pp. 1149–1151.


See, for example, Cyril Aldred, The Egyptians (London: Thames and Hudson, rev. ed. 1984), pp. 151, 191–192 and figs. 104 and 134. For a good summary on Nubian mercenaries in First Intermediate period Egypt, see Bruce Trigger, Nubia Under the Pharaohs (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1976), pp. 60–63. For a good estimate on the proportion of foreigners in the Egyptian army in the Ramesside period (c. 1279–1212 B.C.E.) see Papyrus Anastasi I, translated in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. James B. Pritchard (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 3rd ed., 1969), p. 476.


The dynasty was descended perhaps from the mercenaries who settled in Egypt during the First Intermediate period. See Sir Alan H. Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961), pp. 121 and 126; Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 3 vols. (Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 139–145, esp. p. 143. See also William C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt, 2 vols. (New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1953), vol. 1, pp. 173–174 and figs. 106–107.


Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, p. 134; for Senwosret III’s attitude toward the Kushites, see Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1, pp. 118–120.


Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, pp. 166–167; in the case of the Hyksos, the Egyptians developed a bitter hatred against them that intensified as time passed, largely because the Hyksos imposed their rule and to some extent customs onto the Egyptians rather than merging into Egyptian society as did other foreigners such as the Nubians and Libyans, and even outsiders such as the Sea Peoples. See also Donald B. Redford, “The Hyksos Invasion in History and Tradition,” Orientalia 39 (1970), pp. 1–51.


See Trigger et al., Ancient Egypt: A Social History (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983), pp. 170–171, for the presence of Medjay troops with the army in the war of liberation. The authors even suggest that several of the well-known soldiers from El-Kab who fought in these wars were of Nubian ancestry because of names used by their families.

The Nubian buried in the Valley of the Kings was Naiherperi, a comrade of Thutmose III; see Edward Brovarski, Susan K. Doll and Rita E. Freed, eds., Egypt’s Golden Age: The Art of Living in the New Kingdom (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1982), pp. 175–176, no. 199 and fig. 199. He may have been a Nubian prince brought to Egypt for education and acculturation.


See, for example, Christine Hobson, The World of the Pharaohs (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1987), pp. 150–151 and illustration.


Jean-Philippe Lauer, Saqqara (London: Thames and Hudson, 1976), p. 31 and pl. 15. Among the reserve heads (substitute portrait heads, intended to replace the mummy if it is destroyed) of Pharaoh Khufu’s relatives excavated from their tombs at Giza, one woman’s stands out with much stronger negroid features than those of her typically Egyptian husband, or of the other members of Khufu’s family. These heads are noted as very realistic depictions of their owners. See William Stevenson Smith, Ancient Egypt: As Represented in the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 6th ed. 1960), pp. 34–35, fig. 11; contrast with figs. 10, 12 and 13.


See, for instance, Arpag Mekhitarian, Egyptian Painting, transl. Stuart Gilbert (Geneva: Éditions d’art Albert Skira, 1954), pp. 19, 46–52, 91–94 and 103–107.


Lise Manniche, City of the Dead: Thebes in Egypt (London: British Museum, 1987), p. 39, fig. 31 (Syrian) and pp. 46–47, fig. 39 (Syrians); Aldred, Egyptian Art (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1980), p. 160, fig. 123 (Minoans) and p. 185, fig. 151 (Syrians); and Smith, The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt (Baltimore. MD: Penguin, 1965), pl. 106 and 144A (Nubians and Kushites).


See Trigger, “Nubian, Negro, Black, Nilotic?” in Africa in Antiquity: The Arts of Nubia and the Sudan, 2 vols., ed. Sylvia Hochfield and Elizabeth Riefstahl (New York: Brooklyn Museum, 1978), vol. 1, pp. 27–35, esp. 27–28.