1. Steven Ortiz and Samuel Wolff, “Pharaoh’s Fury: Merneptah’s Destruction of Gezer,BAR, Summer 2022.

2. Philip D. Stern, “Solomon’s Egyptian Bride: Artful Alliance or Biblical Boast?BAR, Spring 2024.

3. Yigal Levin, “Did Pharaoh Sheshonq Attack Jerusalem?” BAR, July/August 2012.


1. Yigael Yadin, “Solomon’s City Wall and Gate at Gezer,” Israel Exploration Journal 8.2 (1958), pp. 80–86.

2. See David Ussishkin, “King Solomon’s Palace and Building 1723 in Megiddo,” Israel Exploration Journal 16.3 (1966), pp. 174–186. More recently, scholars have termed these buildings Lateral Access Podium Structures or Central Hall Tetra-Partite Residencies. See Ilan Sharon and Anabel Zarzecki-Peleg, “Podium Structures with Lateral Access,” in Seymour Gitin et al., eds., Confronting the Past: Archaeological and Historical Essays on Ancient Israel in Honor of William G. Dever (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006), pp. 145–167; and Gunnar Lehmann and Ann E. Killebrew, “Palace 6000 at Megiddo in Context,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 359 (2010), pp. 13–33.