Gabriel Barkay, “What’s an Egyptian Temple Doing in Jerusalem?BAR 26:03.


See Eilat Mazar, “Royal Gateway to Ancient Jerusalem Uncovered,BAR 15:03. See also Gabriel Barkay, “What’s an Egyptian Temple Doing in Jerusalem?” who thinks it may be Amon or Ptah (male); Raphael Giveon of Tel Aviv University considers it to be Ptah (n. 13).


See Yigal Levin, “Did Pharaoh Sheshonq Attack Jerusalem?BAR38:04.



See also Gabriel Barkay, “A Late Bronze Age Egyptian Temple in Jerusalem?” Israel Exploration Journal 46 (1996), p. 23.


EA 286, 287, 288.


EA 287:60–63.


See EA 292.


Gershon Edelstein and Ianir Milevski, “The Rural Settlement of Jerusalem Re-Evaluated: Surveys and Excavations in the Rephaim Valley and Mevasseret Yerushalayim,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 126 (1994), pp. 14–15.


Edelstein and Milevski, “The Rural Settlement of Jerusalem Re-Evaluated,” pp. 14–15.


Two figurines of Sekhmet were found in Jerusalem, one on the Ophel (in Gate House C) and the other one above Area G in the City of David. Both figurines approximately date to the 12th–9th centuries B.C.E. See Eilat Mazar, The Palace of King David—Excavations at the Summit of the City of David—Preliminary Report of the Seasons 2005–2007 (Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication, 2009), pp. 39–40; Eilat Mazar, Discovering the Solomonic Wall in Jerusalem: A Remarkable Archaeological Adventure (Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Association, 2011), pp. 46–47. As for the statuette (of which only the lower half has been preserved), we prefer to identify it with a female deity. While Gabriel Barkay and Raphael Giveon have suggested a male deity (Amon or Ptah), we think that the pronounced upper leg section identifies “her” as a female. My colleague Christoffer Theis has suggested an identification with the goddess Sekhmet (who is attested on other items from Jerusalem), but this equation must remain tentative, as too little remains of the statuette to be certain.


They follow styles recently described by Rachel Sparks of University College London; Rachel T. Sparks, Stone Vessels in the Levant, Palestine Exploration Fund Annual VIII (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 2007), esp. pp. 86–87, 217–218, 289 and 306.


See Christoffer Theis and Peter van der Veen, “Some ‘Provenanced’ Egyptian Inscriptions from Jerusalem: A Preliminary Study of Old and New Evidence,” in G. Galil et al., The Ancient Near East in the 12th–10th Century B.C.E.—Culture and History—Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the University of Haifa, 2–5 May, 2010, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 392 (Münster: Ugarit Verlag, 2012), pp. 509–523.


Simone Burger-Robin, “Analysis, Interpretation and Dating of a Problematic Egyptian Statuary Fragment Discovered in Jerusalem,” in Peter J. James and Peter G. van der Veen, eds., Solomon and Shishak: Current Perspectives from Archaeology, Epigraphy, History and Chronology, Proceedings of the Third BICANE Colloquium Held at Sidney Sussex College Cambridge, March 25–26, 2011 (Oxford, in prep.).


This statue was found with the kind help of Debi Ben-Ami of the IAA.


The author wishes to thank Drs. Simone Burger-Robin and Joan Fletcher for their help in dating this statue.


Carolyn R. Higginbotham, Egyptianization and Elite Emulation in Ramesside Palestine: Governance and Accommodation on the Imperial Periphery (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2000), pp. 72, 136ff.